Fatty acid
Structure
Shorthand
abreviation

Saturated


Butyric acid
CH3(CH2)2 COOH
4 : 0
Caproic
CH3(CH2)4 COOH
6 : 0
Capric acid
CH3(CH2)8 COOH
10 : 0
Lauric acid
CH3(CH2)10COOH
12 : 0
Myristic acid
CH3(CH2)12COOH
14 : 0
Palmitic acid
CH3(CH2)14COOH
16 : 0
Stearic acid
CH3(CH2)16COOH
18 :0
Unsaturated2


Palmitoleic acid
CH3(CH2)5CH=CH(CH2)7COOH
16 : 1n- 7
Oleic acid
CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH
18 : 1n-9
Linoleic acid
CH3(CH2)4CH=CH(CH2)7COOH
18 : 2n- 6
Linolenic acid
CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH
18 : 3n- 3
Arachidonic acid
CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)3COOH
20 : 4n- 6
Eicosapentaenoic acid
CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)3COOH
20 : 5n- 3
Docosahexaenoic acid
CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH =CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)2COOH
22 : 6n- 3

















 

Fats and oils


Fuel or energy can be stored in plants as starch, and in animals as glycogen, but it can also be stored in both plants and animals in a more compact form as fats or oils.

In plants, fats and oils are formed from carbohydrates (e.g. as plants seeds ripen, their starch content falls as their fat content increases).In animals fats can be formed also from carbohydrate (i.e. fattening a pig with food largely composed of carbohydrate).

However, unlike plants, animals can also deposit fat in their body from fat ingested. The only difference between fats and oils is that the latter are liquid at room temperature, whereas fats are semi-solid at room temperature.


Monounsaturated Fatty Acids:

  • Fats containing one double bond on carbon 9.
  • Designated omega-9 or n-9 or oleic acid..


  •  In this respect, dietary lipids may be used to spare the more valuable protein for growth. In particular, free fatty acids derived from triglycerides are the major aerobic fuel source for energy metabolism of fish muscle.
  • Lipids are essential components of all cellular and sub-cellular membranes (lipid classes that are involved include the polyunsaturated fatty acid containing phospholipids, and sterol esters).
  • Lipids serve as biological carriers for the absorption of the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.
  • Lipids are a source of essential fatty acids, which in turn are essential for the maintenance and integrity of cellular membranes, are required for optimal lipid transport (bound to phospholipids as emulsifying agents) and are precursors of the prostaglandin hormones.
  • Lipids are believed to play a role as a mechanical cushion/support for the vital body organs, and aid in the maintenance of neutral buoyancy.
  • Lipids are a source of essential steroids, which in turn perform a wide range of important biological functions (i.e. the sterol cholesterol is involved in the maintenance of membrane systems, for lipid transport, and as a precursor of vitamin D3, the bile acids, and the steroid hormones - androgens, estrogens, adrenal hormones, and corticosteroids).


 

















With very few exceptions, all seeds accumulate oils as triacylglycerols; three fatty acid molecules esterified to a glycerol backbone.  A plant stores reserve material in its seeds in order to allow seedling growth of the next generation until photosynthetic capacity can be established.  The three major storage materials are oil, protein and carbohydrate, and almost all seeds contain some of each.  However, their proportions vary greatly.   For example, the amount of oil in different species may range from as little as 1-2% in grasses such as wheat, to as much as 60% of the total dry weight of the castor seed.  With the exception of the jojoba plant, which accumulates wax esters in seeds, plants store oil as triacylglycerol (TAG).

The endoplasmic reticulum has traditionally been viewed as the primary source of phospholipids in plant cells.  With the exception of cardiolipin, all of the common phospholipids can be produced by microsomal fractions.  The endoplasmic reticulum also serves as the major site of fatty acid diversification.  Although plastids do have the ability to synthesize polyunsaturated fatty acids, they are formed on acyl lipid substrates and are not typically exported.  Thus, the endoplasmic reticulum desaturation pathways are of particular importance for developing seeds that store large quantities of 18: 2 and 18:3.

.



Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) are carbohydronic acids  with at least two double bonds; they are not conjugated but at least one methyl group separates one double bond from the next.   They are divided into groups based on the position of the first double bond counting from the terminus of the carbohydronic chain or methyl group as ω-3, ω-6 and ω-9 fatty acids. ω-3 fatty acids are α-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n3), LCPUFAs like icosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n3).



 

FABGROW



The endoplasmic reticulum has traditionally been viewed as the primary source of phospholipids in plant cells.With the exception of cardiolipin, all of the common phospholipids can be produced by microsomal fractions.The endoplasmic reticulum also serves as the major site of fatty acid diversification.Although plastids do have the ability to synthesize polyunsaturated fatty acids, they are formed on acyl lipid substrates and are not typically exported.Thus, the endoplasmic reticulum desaturation pathways are of particular importance for developing seeds that store large quantities of 18: 2 and 18:3.

 Pathways for the production of unusual fatty acids found primarily in seed oils have likewise been described in microsomes.Not surprisingly, the endoplasmic reticulum also appears to be instrumental in the formation of the triacylglycerols themselves and the lipid bodies in which they are stored.

Pathways for the production of unusual fatty acids found primarily in seed oils have likewise been described in microsomes.  Not surprisingly, the endoplasmic reticulum also appears to be instrumental in the formation of the triacylglycerols themselves and the lipid bodies in which they are stored.

 
Fatty acid structure and classification
Over 40 different fatty acids are known to occur in nature.
They all can be represented by the general formula:    CH3 (CH3)n COOH


 .

OILS IN CROPS AND SEEDS

With very few exceptions, all seeds accumulate oils as triacylglycerols; three fatty acid molecules esterified to a glycerol backbone.  A plant stores reserve material in its seeds in order to allow seedling growth of the next generation until photosynthetic capacity can be established.  The three major storage materials are oil, protein and carbohydrate, and almost all seeds contain some of each.  However, their proportions vary greatly.   For example, the amount of oil in different species may range from as little as 1-2% in grasses such as wheat, to as much as 60% of the total dry weight of the castor seed.  With the exception of the jojoba plant, which accumulates wax esters in seeds, plants store oil as triacylglycerol (TAG).

TARGET CROPS:

Seed and grain oils: Corn, soy, coconut, safflower, sunflower, sesame, cottonseed, walnut, peanut, almond, canola, mustard, flax, grape seed, palm.
Fruit oils: Olive, avocado.

  1. Oil seed crops will yield more with better lipid quantity and quality.
  2. Starch Crops will contain improved lipid content
  3. Agricultural crops will yield a more tasty product with better total digestible nutrients.
  4. Vegetable crops will have a longer shelf life.

 
RECOMMENDED USAGE:
If no other seed treatments containing PUFA are used, then

 FABGROW is recommended @ 10-15 mL/Kg of Seed

 First time : 15 days before flowering till the harvest @ 3-5 mL / L of water in drip / sprinkle / soil drench .  Thereafter two more recommended applications after flowering with a frequency of about a week.

Food containing Polyunsturated Fatty Acids

FOR GROWTH, PRODUCTIVITY AND PERFORMANCE  IN AGRICULTURE  

CONTAINS:

  1. Osmo regulators,
  2. Antioxidants,
  3. Methyl donors,
  4. Amino acids,
  5. Conjugated Linoleic Acid,
  6. 3 omega fatty acids,
  7. Carnitine,
  8. Diiodotyrosine,
  9. Enzymes, Etc.

In Colloidal near-nano size Particles. 

 
MINIMUM GUARANTEE

  1. Crude Fat: 21%
  2. ME: 2100 Kcal/Kg
  3. Crude Protein: 2.9%
  4. Lipase: 0.75 IU/g
  5. Inositol: 0.04%
  6. Betaine: 0.6%

Colloidal PUFA-AG used with Safflowers

FABGROW used for Sunflower Oil

Where         
n = 0 in Acetic acid

n = 1 in Propionic acid

n = 2 in Butyric acid, etc. up to n = 24 (where n is usually an even number).
Most naturally occurring fatty acids contain a single COOH group and a straight unbranched carbon (C) chain, which may in turn contain no double bond (saturated fatty acid), a single double bond (mono-unsaturated fatty acid), or more than one double bond (polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFA).

It follows that the degree of unsaturation will greatly influence the physical properties of the constituent fats, as in general unsaturated fatty acids are more chemically reactive and have lower melting points than the corresponding saturated fatty acids. Examples of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are given below:







Lipid
9.5 kcal/g
Protein
5.6 kcal/g
Carbohydrate
4.1 kcal/g






 Omega-3:

  • Any of the fatty acids in the omega-3 family, short or long-chain.
  • Also designated by n-3.
  • These fats are polyunsaturated with multiple double bonds beginning

          on carbon 3.


Linolenic Acid:

  • Short-chain omega-3 fatty acid designated by ALA or LNA or alpha linolenic acid.
  • Can be converted into EPA and DHA.


 Eicosapentanoic Acid

  • Long-chain essential omega-3 designated EPA
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid: Long-chain essential omega-3 designated DHA.
  • The most important fatty acid for brain function.

 


 Saturated fats:

  • Fats with no double bonds.
  • They can be short or long-chained.
  • They are ubiquitous (in all life).
  • Several are critically important to health and may be anti-viral and anti-bacterial.
  • Natural saturated fats are stable to heat and light and safe for higher heat cooking.
  • They do not oxidize readily.


Trans-fats:

  • Trans-fatty acids are created when seed and grain oils are processed such as in the making of margarine and the hydrogenated fats used in most processed foods.
  • Trans-fats also occur in vegetable and grain oils when they are heated.


ROLE OF LIPIDS IN PLANT NUTRITION

 Lipids are important sources of metabolic energy (ATP) .In fact, the lipids are the most energy rich of all classes of nutrients: gross energy value of:

1 Number of carbon (C) atoms: number of double bonds and position of the first double bond counting from the methyl (CH3) end of the fatty acid
2 Liquid at room temperature

On the basis of the above classification polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may be divided into three major families; the oleic (n-9) series, the linoleic (n-6) series, and the linolenic (n-3) series; the family names representing the shortest chain member of the group, with other family members being derived from these three basic groups

 Fatty acid biosynthesis
With the exception of the land snail (Cepaea nemoralis) animals are incapable of de novo synthesis of fatty acids with double bonds in the n-6 (linoleic series) and n-3 (linolenic series) positions; only plants are able to synthesize these fatty acids de novo.